Detecting and preventing firearms diversion through end-use monitoring: examples from the US

Document: US Blue Lantern end-use monitoring program: firearms cases

Source: US GovernmentEUM

Date: Unspecified

Notes: As part of a study on the mechanics of small arms trafficking, the Small Arms Survey acquired summaries of ‘unfavorable determinations’ resulting from end-use checks of potential and completed exports of firearms from the United States. The checks were performed by the US Department of State as part of the Blue Lantern end-use monitoring program.  Among the more intriguing cases are

– The unauthorized re-export of ‘military-grade assault rifles’ from the armed forces of a former Soviet Republic to private end-users in Central America. The re-export was discovered during a post-shipment check, which also revealed inadequate record-keeping and ‘insufficient inventory controls’.

– An apparent attempt to divert a ‘large volume’ of AK-pattern rifles ostensibly intended for a Central American military.  A pre-shipment brokering check revealed that the military in question had no knowledge of the proposed export.

– The manufacture of ‘unlicensed replicas’ of exported firearms by a private reseller in South Asia.

The cases underscore the value of robust pre- and post-shipment monitoring of small arms exports. While most exporting states regularly engage in pre-shipment licensing reviews, far fewer actually check on their weapons after they are exported. Some of these incidents may not have been discovered had the US government not conducted post-shipment checks.

For more information on US end-use monitoring, see the annual reports on the Blue Lantern program.  For more information on arms trafficking from the US, see ‘Dribs and Drabs: The Mechanics of Small Arms Trafficking from the United States.

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Detecting and preventing firearms diversion through end-use monitoring: examples from the US

Newly released documents on weapons recovered in Afghanistan

Documents: Arms caches seized in Afghanistan, April through June 2011

Source: U.S. Department of Defense RPG_markings

Publication Dates: See below

Notes: As part ongoing efforts to better understand the weapons acquired and used by armed groups and other unauthorized end-users, Small Arms Surve submitted a request to US Central Command (CENTCOM) for documents and photos of arms caches recovered in Afghanistan from April through June 2011. In respoRPG_launchernse to this request, CENTCOM provided the following storyboards (succinct summaries of cache seizures and other events).  Many of the documents include photos of the markings on one or more of the seized items. The items consist primarily of older generation Chinese and Soviet-designed small arms, light weapons, and ammunition, along with large quantities of IED components and explosives. The items are consistent with those recovered from caches previously studied by Small Arms Survey. 

The documents were obtained under the US Freedom of Information Act. They are posted as received from the responding agency. For more data and information on illicit weapons in Afghanistan, see the links at the bottom of the post.

1) ERW – Weapons Cache, Kandahar, 2 April 2011. Items: Recoilless rifle rounds, rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) rounds and components, hand grenades, small arms ammunition. Includes photos of markings.

2) Cache – Complex Cache, Helmand, 3 June 2011. Items: Artillery rocket, landmine, IED components, explosives, small arms ammunition. Continue reading “Newly released documents on weapons recovered in Afghanistan”

Newly released documents on weapons recovered in Afghanistan

The Conventional Weapons Threat to Land Forces in Afghanistan

Document: The_Conventional_Weapons_Threat_to_Land_Forces_in_Afghanistan-U

Source: UK Defence Intelligence StaffUK_Afghanistan_rpt

Publication Date: 27 December 2012

Notes: Obtained by Small Arms Survey under the UK Freedom of Information Act. Posted as received from the responding agency.

Full Document

For more information on small arms and light weapons acquired by armed groups in Afghanistan, see

1) ‘Surveying the Battlefield: Illicit Arms In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia’ in Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.

2) UK Defence Intelligence Threat Statement on Insurgent weapons in Afghanistan

3) Small Arms Ammunition Identification Guide for Iraq and Afghanistan

4) Weapons seized by British Forces in Afghanistan

The Conventional Weapons Threat to Land Forces in Afghanistan

Small Arms Ammunition Identification Guide for Iraq and Afghanistan

Document Name: Small Arms Ammunition Identification – OEF and OIF
Small_Arms_Ammunition_Identification_OEF_and_OIF
Source:
US Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center

Publication Date: 4 March 2005

Notes: Obtained by Small Arms Survey and the Federation of American Scientists under the US Freedom of Information Act. Posted as received from the responding agency.

Full Report

Small Arms Ammunition Identification Guide for Iraq and Afghanistan

UK Defence Intelligence Threat Statement on Insurgent weapons in Afghanistan

 The_Insurgent_Weapons_Arsenal_Afghanistan_coverDocument Name: Defence Intelligence Threat Statement: The Insurgent Weapons Arsenal (Afghanistan)

Source: UK Defence Intelligence Staff

Publication Date: 2 December 2010

Notes: Obtained under the UK Freedom of Information Act. Document obtained in electronic form. Posted as received from the responding agency.

Contents:

Full Report

SECTION 1 – PISTOLS – page 3
SECTION 2 – RIFLES – page 5
SECTION 3 – SUB MACHINE GUNS – page 10
SECTION 4 – LIGHT MACHINE GUNS – page 12
SECTION 5 – GENERAL PURPOSE MACHINE GUNS – page 14
SECTION 6 – HEAVY MACHINE GUNS – page 16
SECTION 7 – SNIPER AND ANTI-MATERIAL RIFLES – page 18
SECTION 8 – RECOILLESS RIFLES – page 20
SECTION 9 – GRENADE LAUNCHERS – page 23
SECTION 10 – ROCKET PROPELLED GRENADES – page 24
SECTION 11 – THERMOBARIC WEAPONS – page 29
SECTION 12 – ANTI TANK GUIDED MISSILES – page 30
SECTION 13 – GRENADES – page 35
SECTION 14 – MORTARS – page 37
SECTION 15 – ROCKETS – page 39
SECTION 16 – LANDMINES – page 40
SECTION 17 – ANTI-AIRCRAFT ARTILLERY – page 49
SECTION 18 – MAN PORTABLE AIR DEFENCE – page 51
SECTION 19 – NIGHT VISION DEVICES – page 54

UK Defence Intelligence Threat Statement on Insurgent weapons in Afghanistan

Weapons recognition guide – US Defense Intelligence Agency

Document Name: Small Arms/Light Weapons and MANPADS Recognition and Inventory Guide

40mm_propelled_grenade_rounds1

Source: US Defense Intelligence Agency

Publication Date: Unknown

Release Date: 4 December 2014

Notes: Obtained under the US Freedom of Information Act. Document obtained in print form. Reproduced electronically as received from the responding agency.

Contents:

Front_matter_1

Front_matter_2

Pistols

Sniper Rifles

Assault Rifles

Machineguns

Light Support Weapons

Factory_Stamp_Identifiers

MANPADS

 

Weapons recognition guide – US Defense Intelligence Agency